The Eirós Cave in the municipality of Triacastela (province of Lugo) preserves animal remains and Neanderthal stone objects from the Middle Paleolithic, thanks to its alkaline chemistry. There are other remnants of the Middle Paleolithic along the lower Miño and in the Ourense depression. The earliest culture of the region to leave significant architectural traces appears to have been centered around veneration of the dead as intermediaries between deities and the living. The society seems to have been organized in a clan structure. Thousands of Megalithic tumuli throughout the territory. Within each tumulus is a stone burial chamber known as a dolmen; the sizes of these chambers vary. Rich mineral deposits led to the development of Bronze Age metallurgy. Utensils and gold and bronze jewelry from Galicia have been found as far away as the far side of the Pyrenees. At this time, climate change seems to have driven migration into the region from the vast plateau of Iberia’s Meseta Central, increasing the population and causing conflict between communities. Before the Roman invasion, a series of tribes lived in the region, and according to Strabo, Pliny, Herodotus and others, they shared similar Celtic customs.
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