Rocamadour. For nearly a thousand years, the narrow, lonely canyon of the Alzou has been home to a cluster of buildings clinging to the rock half way up the sheer cliffs; and from this improbable spot, a powerful call has gone out, drawing millions of the faithful to the shrine of the Black Virgin of Rocamadour. From very early times, a chapel dedicated to Our Lady existed here, looked after by a few Benedictine monks, but it was only after the discovery of the perfectly-preserved body of Saint Amadour in 1166 that a pilgrimage began to develop. This flourished until the 15th C. and brought great wealth, which saw the development of the monastic buildings (now gone), the shrines, seven in all, the village itself, amenities such as a pilgrim hospital, water cisterns, etc., plus the essential defences: castle, ramparts and fortified gates, of which several are intact or still easily visible. The 16th C. Wars of Religion saw the desecration of the shrines and the end of the great era of pilgrimage; but the 19th C. saw a keen revival of interest in both religious practice and in medieval art, and much work was done to restore the pilgrimage and its setting to their former glory. Here, the magic of Nature and the cunning art of Man go hand-in-hand, blending in total harmony so that it is sometimes hard to tell one from the other.
A legend supposed to explain the origin of this pilgrimage has given rise to controversies between critical and traditional schools, especially in recent times. A vehicle by which the legend was disseminated and pilgrims drawn to the site was The Miracles of Our Lady of Rocamadour, written ca. 1172, an example of the miracula, or books of collected miracles, which had such a wide audience in the Middle Ages. According to the founding legend, Rocamadour is named after the founder of the ancient sanctuary, Saint Amator, identified with the Biblical Zacheus, the tax collector of Jericho mentioned in Luke 19:1-10, and the husband of St. Veronica, who wiped Jesus’ face on the way to Calvary. Driven out of Palestine by persecution, St. Amadour and Veronica embarked in a frail skiff and, guided by an angel, landed on the coast of Aquitaine, where they met Bishop St. Martial, another disciple of Christ who was preaching the Gospel in the south-west of Gaul. After journeying to Rome, where he witnessed the martyrdoms of St. Peter and St. Paul, Amadour, having returned to France, on the death of his spouse, withdrew to a wild spot in Quercy where he built a chapel in honour of the Blessed Virgin, near which he died a little later.
This account, like most other similar legends, does not make its first appearance till long after the age in which the chief actors are deemed to have lived. The name of Amadour occurs in no document previous to the compilation of his Acts, which on careful examination and on an application of the rules of the cursus to the text cannot be judged older than the 12th century. It is now well established that Saint Martial, Amadour’s contemporary in the legend, lived in the 3rd not the 1st century, and Rome has never included him among the members of the Apostolic College. The mention, therefore, of St. Martial in the “Acts of St. Amadour” would alone suffice, even if other proof were wanting, to prove them doubtful. The untrustworthiness of the legend has led some recent authors to suggest that Amadour was an unknown hermit or possibly St. Amator, Bishop of Auxerre, but this is mere hypothesis, without any historical basis. The origin of the sanctuary of Rocamadour, lost in antiquity, is thus set down along with fabulous traditions which cannot bear up to sound criticism. After the religious manifestations of the Middle Ages, Rocamadour, as a result of war and the French Revolution, had become almost deserted. In the mid-nineteenth century, owing to the zeal and activity of the bishops of Cahors, it seems to have revived.
Rocamadour is classed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO as part of the St James’ Way pilgrimage route.
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