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Main Sights in Salzburg

Mozart’s Birthplace

The Mozart family lived on the third floor of the “Hagenauer House” at Getreidegasse 9 for twenty-six years, from 1747 to 1773. The celebrated composer, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, was born here on January 27, 1756. The building is named after the merchant and toy dealer, Johann Lorenz Hagenauer (1712-1792), who owned the building and was a friend of the Mozart family.

A museum at Getreidegasse 9
The International Mozarteum Foundation first installed a museum in Mozart’s Birthplace on June 15, 1880. It was systematically remodeled and enlarged over the decades and has become a cultural venue that draws thousands of visitors from around the world to Salzburg each year.
Visitors are conducted through the original Mozart rooms at Mozart’s Birthplace containing historic instruments, documents, memorabilia and most of the portraits painted during his lifetime, including the unfinished oil painting “Mozart at the Piano” painted by Mozart’s brother-in-law, Joseph Lange, in 1789. The famous exhibits include Mozart’s child violin, his concert violin, his clavichord, the harpsichord, portraits and letters from the Mozart family

Salzburg Cathedral – Salzburger Dom

Salzburg’s Cathedral is probably the city’s most significant piece of church architecture and its ecclesiastical center. With its magnificent façade and mighty dome it represents the most impressive early Baroque edifice north of the Alps. Its origin is closely connected to the ecclesiastical principality’s demeanour and growth. Destroyed by fire and rebuilt, enlarged and expanded, it bears witness to the power and independence of Salzburg’s archbishops.

The first cathedral was built on this site by Bishop Virgil who came to Salzburg in 767 and built a cathedral on the site of the former Roman Juvavum. On September 24, 774 the cathedral was consecrated to St. Virgil and St. Rupert. The city was set on fire in 1167 by the Counts of Plain, followers of the emperor Friedrick Barbarossa, also destroying the cathedral. The cathedral was rebuilt ten years later under the rule of Archbishop Conrad III of Wittelsbach and became more beautiful, more magnificent and more impressive than ever, making it the mightiest Romaneque cathedral north of the Alps, its size even surpassing the emperor’s cathedral in Speyer

Hohensalzburg Fortress

Hohensalzburg Fortress, built in 1077 by Archbishop Gebhard, considerably enlarged by Archbishop Leonhard von Keutschach (1495-1519), largest, fully-preserved fortress in central Europe. The medieval princes’ apartments and the Fortress Museum are of particular interest. Since 1892 the fortress can easily be reached by funicular railway departing from the Festungsgasse. The more than 900-year-old citadel dates back to the investiture controversy between emperor and pope over the right to appoint the bishop. As a faithful servant of the pope, Archbishop Gebhart von Salzburg had the strongholds of Hohensalzburg, Hohenwerfen and Friesach built on his sovereign territory in 1077. Expansion of Gebhart’s fortifications were temporarily completed under Konrad I (1160 – 1147).
During the 15th and 16th centuries, during the turmoil of the so-called Hungarian War and the Peasants’ War in which the province of Salzburg was involved, the archbishops took refuge behind the battlements of the fortress. It was during this period that the main building was enlarged and the arsenal and the granary erected. Archbishop Leonhard von Keutschach (1495 – 1519) enlarged the fortress and its exterior has remained substantially unaltered since then. The fortress’ interior was richly decorated: intricate Gothic wood-carvings and ornamental paintings decorate the Golden Hall and the Golden Chamber. 58 insignia and coats of arms with the beetroot are commemorative of Leonhard von Keutschach. The fortress’ symbol, the lion, holds the beetroot in its paws. One of the last extensive modifications was the addition of the great Kuenberg bastion. During its long history the Hohensalzburg Fortress has always remained unconquered by enemy troops

Mirabell Palace and Gardens

Prince-Archbishop Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau had Altenau Palace built in 1606 as a token of his love for Salome Alt. The palace fulfilled its purpose: fifteen children were born of their union, ten of whom survived. After Wolf Dietrich’s death, the palace was renamed “Mirabell” by his successor, Markus Sitticus von Hohenems. Prince-Archbishop Franz Anton von Harrach had Mirabell Palace redesigned by the famous baroque architect, Lukas von Hildebrandt, from 1721 to 1727, integrating the individual buildings into a self-contained complex. The palace was damaged by the great fire that swept through the city on April 30, 1818. A number of frescoes including those by Johann Michael Rottmayr and Gaetano Fanti fell victim to the flames. The grand marble staircase that led into the palace and the marble hall survived unscathed.

The Mirabell Gardens
The famous Mirabell Gardens were redesigned around 1690 under Prince-Archbishop Johann Ernst Graf von Thun to plans by Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach and completely remodeled around 1730 by Franz Anton Danreiter. The Pegasus Fountain, a work by Kaspar Gras from Innsbruck, was installed in 1913. The four groups of statues around the fountain were sculpted by Ottavio Mosto (1690) and symbolize the 4 elements: fire, air, earth and water. The Mirabell Gardens were opened to the public by Emperor Franz Joseph in 1854. Today they are a horticultural masterpiece and popular backdrop for photographers.The Hedge Theater – created between 1704 and 1718 – is located in the main part of the Mirabell Gardens and is one of the oldest hedge theaters north of the Alps. The Dwarf Garden features a number of misshapen creatures made of white Untersberg marble and dates back to the time of Archbishop Franz Anton Harrach. Today Mirabell Palace houses the offices of Salzburg’s mayor and the municipal council. The Marble Hall, formerly the prince-archbishops’ ballroom and concert venue for Leopold Mozart and his children Wolfgang and Nannerl, is considered to be one of the “most beautiful wedding halls in the world.” Meetings, awards ceremonies and romantic concerts (Salzburg Palace Concerts) are held here regularly.

Salzburg Residenz Palace

Salzburg’s Residenz, situated in the heart of the city, is an extensive complex of buildings, containing some 180 rooms and three spacious courtyards. Here the the prince archbishops of Salzburg held court and controlled the destiny of their country up to the 19th century. The prince archbishops continued to add on to their palace for centuries. The building sustained substantial structural changes under Prince Archbishop Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau (1587 – 1612). The Residenz, used to entertain the important guests of the prince archbishops for many centuries, continues to serve in that function. In recent decades it has seen crowned heads, political leaders and prominent figureheads. In 1867 Emperor Franz Josef I and his wife Elisabeth welcomed the French Emperor Napoleon III and his wife Eugénie for an official visit over a period of several days at the former archiepiscopal court.

Today the Residenz is the venue for official receptions, meetings and international conventions. The Residenz is entered from Residenz Square through a large marble portal bearing the coat of arms of the prince archbishops Wolf Dietrich, Paris Lodron and Franz Anton Harrachs. The wide main staircase leads up to the Carabinierisaal. This hall was built around 1600 under Wolf Dietrich and is named after the prince archbishop’s bodyguards. The hall was not only used by the bodyguards but also as a theater and banquet hall

Schloss Klessheim

Schloss Klessheim is a Baroque palace situated 4 km (2.5 mi) west of Salzburg in the Austrian commune of Wals-Siezenheim. A former summer residence of the Archbishops of Salzburg, it is now used by Salzburg Casino.

Originally, the Kleshof was a small manor house, which was acquired by Prince-Archbishop Johann Ernst von Thun in 1690. The architect Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach converted it into Lustschloss Favorita from 1700 onwards, but after the archbishop’s death in 1709, his successor Franz Anton von Harrach cancelled work in favour of Schloss Mirabell. Archbishop Count Leopold Anton von Firmian, who also built Schloss Leopoldskron, had Klessheim finished, including a ceremonial hall with an extended terrace and ramp leading to the gardens. In the late 18th century, an English landscape park was added under the rule of Archbishop Count Hieronymus von Colloredo. After Salzburg’s secularisation in 1803, Klessheim Palace fell to the Austrian House of Habsburg-Lorraine. In 1866 it became the permanent residence of Archduke Ludwig Viktor of Austria (1842–1919), a younger brother of Emperor Franz Joseph I. The archduke had the palace extended according to plans designed by Heinrich von Ferstel and died here in 1919. His Habsburg heirs sold the palace to the Austrian state of Salzburg. After the Austrian Anschluss in 1938, Adolf Hitler, when staying at his nearby Berghof residence, used Schloss Klessheim for conferences and to host official guests like Benito Mussolini, Miklós Horthy, Ion Antonescu, Jozef Tiso and Ante Paveli?. While Horthy stayed at Klessheim, Hitler on 19 March 1944 secretly gave orders for Operation Margarethe to occupy Hungary and enforce the deportation of the Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz. On 7 July 1944, on the occasion of a weapons exhibition, an attempt by severalWehrmacht officers around von Stauffenberg to kill Hitler failed, when conspirator Helmuth Stieff did not trigger the bomb. Until October 1944, the palace remained outside the reach of Allied bombers. In May 1945 it was seized by the American military administration. Reichsadler statues made of lime stone, that were attached to the entrance portals, were a reminder of the Nazi era. After the war, Schloss Klessheim was restored to the State of Salzburg. During Cold War, the neutral Austrian government used it to hold conferences and to host international guests, among them US President Richard Nixon, who on his way to Moscow met here with Chancellor Bruno Kreisky on 20 May 1972. Since 1993 it is the seat of the Salzburg casino, which formerly was situated on the Mönchsberg. The castle also appeared in the 1965 film The Great Race with Jack Lemmon, Tony Curtis and Peter Falk.

Salzkammergut

The Salzkammergut is a resort area located in Austria. It stretches from City of Salzburg to the Dachstein mountain range, spanning the federal states of Upper Austria (80%), Salzburg (7%), and Styria (13%). The main river of the region is the Traun, a tributary of the Danube. The name Salzkammergut means “Estate of the Salt Chamber” and derives from the Imperial Salt Chamber, the authority charged with running the precious salt mines in the Habsburgempire. With its numerous lakes and mountains, the Salzkammergut offers many opportunities to take part in water sports, bathing, hiking, cycling and golf as well as relaxing around lakes such as the Grundlsee or Toplitzsee. The Katrinalm, an alpine pasture, is found near Bad Ischl. Typical Salzkammergut culinary specialities include dishes such as Kaiserschmarrn (cut-up and sugared pancake with raisins), Krapfen (similar to doughnuts) or Lebkuchen (gingerbread). Large parts of the region were listed as a World Heritage Site in 1997, with the description: “Human activity in the magnificent natural landscape of the Salzkammergut began in prehistoric times, with the salt deposits being exploited as early as the 2nd millennium B.C. This resource formed the basis of the area’s prosperity up to the middle of the 20th century, a prosperity that is reflected in the fine architecture of the town of Hallstatt.”

Untersberg

The Untersberg is a mountain massif of the Berchtesgaden Alps that straddles the border between Berchtesgaden, Germany and Salzburg, Austria. The mountain is popular with tourists due to its proximity to the city of Salzburg: less than 16 km (10 mi) to the north and within easy reach by bus. Trails lead to the top, but most people use the cable car that lifts passengers over 1300m to the Geiereck peak. The first recorded ascent was in the first half of the 12th century, by Eberwein, a member of the Augustinian monastery at Berchtesgaden. A cable car runs from the ‘St Leonhard’ station in the town of Gartenau to the station at the Geiereck peak. Constructed over a period of over two years, and opening in April 1961, the eight and a half minute journey lifts passengers from the base at 456m to an altitude of 1776m, transporting them a horizontal distance of almost 2.5 km during the ascent.

According to legend Emperor Frederick Barbarossa (of the Holy Roman Empire) is asleep inside Untersberg, taken care of by the “Untersberger Mandln”, small dwarf-like creatures. His beard is said to be growing longer and longer around a round table and to have grown round two times. Myth says that when the beard has grown three times around the table the end of world has come. Every hundred years he awakes and when he sees the ravens still flying around the Untersberg he sleeps for another century. When Frederik leaves the mountain, the last great battle of humankind will be fought on the Walserfeld. This is a field at Wals, west of Salzburg. There is a similar legend for the Kyffhäuser Mountain in Thüringen. Other legends say that it is Karl der Große Charlemagne waiting inside the Untersberg. There are also legends about the cave system below the mountain. There is a lake in 930 meters depth. An expedition in August 2008 revealed that its lowest point had not yet been reached.

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