The London Underground (often shortened to the Underground) is a rapid transit system in the United Kingdom, serving a large part of Greater London and some parts of Buckingham-shire, Hertfordshire and Essex. It incorporates the oldest section of underground railway in the world, which opened in 1863 and now forms part of the Circle, Hammer-smith & City, and Metropolitan lines; and the first line to operate electric trains, in 1890, now part of the Northern line.
The Underground serves 270 stations and has 402 kilometres (250 mi) of track, 45 per cent of which is underground.It is the second largest metro system in the world in terms of route miles, after the Shanghai Metro and part of the largest system in terms of route miles when taken together with the Docklands Light Railway. It also has one of the largest numbers of stations.
The London Underground’s 11 lines are divided into two classes: the subsurface routes and the deep-tube routes. The Circle, District, Hammersmith & City, and Metropolitan lines make up the subsurface class. The Bakerloo, Central, Jubilee, Northern, Piccadilly, Victoria and Waterloo & City lines are the deep-tube routes. There was a twelfth line, a fifth subsurface route, the East London line, until 2007, when it closed for rebuilding work. It reopened as part of London Overground in April 2010.
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