About 500 BC a Celtic people called the Helveti entered Switzerland from the west. However by 58 BC the Romans ruled the area and they built a capital at Aventicum (Avenches). In the following centuries Switzerland became thoroughly Romanised. The Romans built roads and other towns. However in 260 a tribe called the Alemanii attacked the region. Switzerland never really recovered from the incursion and about 400 AD the Roman army withdrew altogether. In the 5th century AD peoples called the Alemans, Burgundians and Lombards settled in Switzerland. However about 600 the Franks from France conquered them. In the 9th century under Charlemagne the Franks ruled most of Europe. However their empire was split among his descendants and by the 13th century most of Switzerland was ruled by the Austrian Habsburg family.
Meanwhile trade and commerce boomed in Switzerland in the 12th and 13th centuries and new towns were founded. In 1291 delegates from the cantons of Schwyz, Uri and Unterwalden met at Rutli Meadow and formed an alliance against the Habsburgs. They formed the nucleus of modern Switzerland. Switzerland went from strength to strength. In 1315 the Swiss defeated the army of Prince Leopold Habsburg. Then in 1332 the canton of Luzern joined. The canton of Zurich followed in 1351. Later the cantons of Glarus, Zug and Bern joined the Swiss Confederation. Furthermore the Swiss defeated the Habsburgs again at Sempach in 1386 and Nafels in 1388.
In the 15th and early 16th centuries the Switzerland grew still larger and stronger. The cantons of Fibourg and Solothurn joined in 1481. Basel and Schaffhausen followed in 1501 and Appenzell joined in 1513. There were now 13 cantons making up Switzerland. Meanwhile Swiss soldiers became feared mercenaries in other parts of Europe. In 1506 Pope Julius II formed the Swiss Guard to be his bodyguard. However Switzerland suffered a defeat in 1515. In 1512 Swiss troops occupied Lombardy but in 1515 the French and Venetians defeated them at the battle of Marignano. Afterwards Switzerland began to adopt a policy of neutrality.
In the 16th century like the rest of Europe Switzerland was rocked by the Reformation. Urban parts of Switzerland embraced Protestantism but poor, rural areas remained Catholic. The leading figures in the Swiss Reformation were Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531) in Zurich and Jean Calvin (1509-1564) in Geneva.
During the 17th century Switzerland prospered. It stayed neutral in the Thirty Years War that engulfed Europe in the years 1618-1648 and in 1848 Austria formally recognised Swiss independence. In the 18th century economic growth in Switzerland continued. It was boosted by the arrival of Huguenots (French Protestants) fleeing religious persecution. Clock and watch making flourished in 18th century Switzerland. So did a textiles industry. Then in 1798 Napoleon invaded Switzerland. He abolished the 13 cantons and replaced them with the Helvetic Republic. However it was short lived. The cantons were restored in 1803. (Although they were controlled by France until 1815).
In the early 19th century opinion between liberals and conservative Catholics in Switzerland became polarised. In 1845 seven Catholic cantons formed a union called the Sonderbund. Other Swiss demanded it be dissolved and in 1847 a short civil war was fought. It ended with the defeat of the Catholic cantons. In the late 19th century the Swiss economy developed rapidly. Tourism to Switzerland grew. Switzerland was also known for its chemicals industry, its precision engineering and food like chocolate and powdered milk. During the First World War Switzerland remained neutral although many German speaking Swiss supported Germany while many French speaking Swiss supported the allies. Then in November 1918 a general strike was held in Switzerland. The Swiss army was sent to break the strike yet the workers did eventually did win their demands. Proportional representation and a 48 hour working week were introduced. In 1920 Switzerland joined the League of Nations and the 1920s were years of prosperity for the nation. However like the rest of the world Switzerland suffered from the depression of the early 1930s. However in the late 1930s the Swiss economy recovered as the world rearmed.
During World War II Switzerland remained neutral although Swiss banks accepted gold looted by the Nazis and Swiss industry helped to supply the German war machine. The post war years were also prosperous for Switzerland but it was not until 1971 that women in Switzerland were allowed to vote!
Then in 1998 Switzerland was rocked by a scandal when it became clear that during World War II Swiss banks accepted gold looted by the Nazis.
In 2002 Switzerland joined the UN. Today the population of Switzerland is 7.6 million.
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