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Lazienki Park, Warsaw, Poland

Lazienki Park –Polish: Park Lazienkowski or Lazienki Królewskie, literally Baths Park or Royal Baths, is the largest park inWarsaw, Poland, occupying 76 hectares of the city centre. The park-and-palace complex lies in Warsaw’s Downtown (?ródmie?cie), on Ujazdów Avenue (Aleje Ujazdowskie) on the “Royal Route” linking the Royal Castle with Wilanów palace to the south. North of Lazienki Park, on the other side of Agrykola Street, stands Ujazdów Castle. ?azienki Park was designed in the 17th century by Tylman van Gameren, in the baroque style, forStanis?aw Herakliusz Lubomirski. It took the name Lazienki (“Baths”) from a bathing pavilion that was located there. In 1764 the gardens were acquired by Stanis?aw August Poniatowski, after his election that year as King of Poland.

The development of the classical-style gardens became a major project for King Stanis?aw August. The park-and-palace complex was designed by Domenico Merlini, Johann Christian Kammsetzerand landscape gardener Jan Chrystian Schuch. Its principal buildings stand beside or near the Lazienki Lake and Lazienki River. Stanislaw August’s palace is situated on the lake and hence is known as the “Palace on the Water.” Most of the buildings in the park suffered severe fire damage during and after the 1944 Warsaw Uprising, amid fighting between German and Polish forces. The structures nevertheless were relatively well-preserved, compared to those in the Old Town; here the Germans had drilled holes in the palace walls for placement of explosive charges, but charges had not been placed to destroy the buildings. Reconstruction of the park and palaces was completed within a few years after World War II.

The Palace on the Water also called the Lazienki Palace (Palac Lazienkowski) and the Palace on the Island (Palac na Wyspie), was built in the 17th century by Tylman van Gameren for Stanis?aw Herakliusz Lubomirski.

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The Roman-inspired Amphitheater was built on the bank of the Lazienki lake, separated by a narrow strait from its stage. The amphitheater was built in 1790-93 by Jan Chrystian Kamsetzer

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The Little White House (Bia?y Domek) is a garden villa built in 1774-76 by Domenico Merlini. It housed King Stanis?aw August Poniatowski’s mistress and, for a time, Louis XVIII, who lived here in ……

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Named after the village of My?lewice, the little palace (in Polish Pa?ac My?lewicki) was built for King Stanis?aw August Poniatowski in 1775–79 to an early-classicist design by Domenico Merlini.The palace’s main, three-story body features a central entry niche and is flanked by quarter-circle wings….

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The Old Orangery was erected in 1786-88 in a rectangular horseshoe shape, with the southern façade of the core structure broken up by pilasters and arcaded great windows. It houses a magnificent interior. The building contains a well-preserved wooden theatre ……

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The building was built by Adam Adolf Loewe and Józef Or?owski in 1860. Neo-classicist with eclectic elements, it was designed to shelter the collection of orange trees. The building was necessary because tsar Alexander II of Russia, who purchased one of the largest…

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In 1822, Jakub Kubicki erected a classicist temple to the goddess Diana. Also called the “Temple of the Sibyl,” it stands next to the northwest part of the southern Lazienki lake. The wooden building is massive and decorated inside with murals with flower and fruit motifs.

The Water Tower is a neoclassical structure, built in 1777–78 and 1822 by Jan Christian Kamsetzer and Chrystian Piotr Aigner. It was modeled after Caecilia Metella’s mausoleum on the Appian Way in Rome and currently serves as a museum of jewelry.

Within the gardens stands the Astronomical Observatory founded by the second rector ofWarsaw University, astronomer Franciszek Armi?ski (1789–1848). Its tradition goes back to 1665, when the first observatory in Poland (nota bene at the Ujazdów Castle) was established by Titus Livius Burattini. Construction was started in 1822 and the observatory was formally inaugurated in 1825. The classicist façade dates to 1824 and was designed by royal architects Chrystian Piotr Aigner, Hilary Szpilowski and Micha? Kado.

The park is also home to the Chopin Statue, a monument to Frédéric Chopin. It was designed in 1907 by Wac?aw Szymanowski for planned erection on the centenary of Chopin’s birth in 1910, but its execution was delayed by controversy about the design, then by the outbreak of World War I. The statue was finally cast and erected in 1926.

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